Gobekli Tepe - National Geographic
Angels N Demons
11,500 year old man-made structures discovered in Turkey.
Göbekli Tepe ("Potbelly Hill") is an archaeological site at the top of a mountain ridge in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of modern-day Turkey, approximately 12 km (7 mi) northeast of the city of Şanlıurfa. The tell has a height of 15 m (49 ft) and is about 300 m (984 ft) in diameter. It is approximately 760 m (2,493 ft) above sea level.
The tell includes two phases of ritual use dating back to the 10th – 8th millennium BCE. During the first phase, pre-pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), circles of massive T-shaped stone pillars were erected. More than 200 pillars in about 20 circles are currently known through geophysical surveys. Each pillar has a height of up to 6 m (20 ft) and a weight of up to 20 tons. They are fitted into sockets that were hewn out of the bedrock. In the second phase, Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB), the erected pillars are smaller and stood in rectangular rooms with floors of polished lime. The site was abandoned after the PPNB-period. Younger structures date to classical times.
The purpose of the structures is not yet clear. It was excavated by a German archaeological team under the direction of Klaus Schmidt from 1996 until his death in 2014; Schmidt believed that they had been early neolithic sanctuaries.
Of course, the land now known as "Turkey" was only associated with Turkic people when they invaded the region about 900 years ago. Prior to that, this land was part of Europe (Byzantine Rome). Before Roman influence, it was Greek in the west, and apparently Keltoi in the east. However, due to its proximity to the great ancient Middle East civilizations, such as Phoenicia-Canaan, there is no way to determine if this early civilization that Göbekli Tepe was part of was coming from Europe or the Middle East.
There's no way to determine the answer at this time. We still don't truly know if the ancient Greeks were Proto-European or True-Mediterranean. My guess was that the ancient Greeks were basically of True-Mediterranean origin, as the Olympian pantheon replaced the early Proto-European pantheon revolving around the Goddess Hecate. This would show that the True-Mediterraneans migrated westward, perhaps preceded in the east by a small Teutonic migration which resulted in the Celtic (Keltoi) culture.
11,500 years ago would put this time in the middle of the last glacial movement. This would mean that half of Europe was covered by a massive sheet of ice. The Proto-Europeans lived in the southern half of the continent, and I'm guessing perhaps also in what is now the Maghrib and in the northern Caucusus. This would have been about 6,000 years before the Sumerian civilization to the east. This is such a long time that it would seem beyond the orbit of the progression of civilization as we now know it.
Somewhat adding to the confusion is that Göbekli Tepe is located on the southeast edge of what is now Turkey, close to what later was known as the Phoenician civilization. However, this was more than 8,000 years before Phoenicia-Canaan. Too long to tie the two in any manner, or to any particular ethnic type. We probably can at least say that Göbekli Tepe was Indo-European.
The Göbekli Tepe ruins are an unearthed group of temples, far from being fully excavated. Only a fraction of it has been uncovered. An older group of circular temples, discovered with ground penetrating radar, are estimated at about 14,000 years old. If we look at the individual temples, I counted ten T-shaped outer pillars and two T-shaped inner pillars, they look as though they could be a type of technology used to harness an energy or power. They were very well constructed.
Another factor to consider that this would not have been today's sunny Turkey It would have resembled the climate of Scotland. Given all of these particulars, especially the compression of this people into southern Europe at that time, I would lean towards this being a Proto-European construction. Their is evidence of some advanced technology and understanding from these peoples; Stonehenge and the Nebra sky disk come to mind. Lastly, why did they eventually bury these temples and pillars?
'Gobekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods' (Collins; 2014)
Pictorial Representation Of Göbekli Tepe Found (Andrew Collins)