Wednesday, June 12, 2019

Rick Steves' Europe - Milan and Lake Como




Milan and Lake Como

Rick Steves' Europe

Rick Steves' Europe Travel Guide | No trip to Italy is complete without Milan and Lake Como. In Milan we'll take a peek at Italy's highest fashion, fanciest delis, grandest cemetery, and greatest opera house...not to mention Leonardo's Last Supper. Then we'll cruise along Lake Como, settling down in the lakeside village of Varenna...classic honeymoon country, where Italy meets the Alps.

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Thursday, June 6, 2019

Summer Solstice 2019 - June 21 - Part 3


The Addams Family Musical has a song within it entitled, 'Move Toward the Darkness'. Here is an except of the lyrics:

Move toward the darkness
Welcome the unknown
Face your blackest demons
Find your weakest bone
Lost your inhibitions
Love what once was vile
Move toward the darkness and smile

When you face your nightmares
Then you'll know what's real

Move toward the darkness
Conquering your pain
Let each foreign forest
Offer you its rain
Only at our lowest
Can we rise above
Move toward the darkness and love


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"Who looks outside, dreams; who looks inside, awakes." -- Carl Jung on Inner Darkness


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Big Bay Point Lighthouse

Bastyan78

This lightohuse is haunted

Kevin MacLeod: Cryptic Sorrow - Atlantean Twilight


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Big Bay Point Light

'12 Incredibly Haunted Places in the Upper Peninsula'

Big Bay Point Lighthouse (bed and breakfast; Big Bay, Michigan)


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'Haunted Big Bay Point Light'

The haunted Big Bay Point Light sits overlooking Lake Superior in Michigan's Upper Peninsula, being built in 1896. The Big Bay Point Light is made of red brick with a square lighthouse tower that is attached to the keeper's house. It was fully automated in 1941, later decommissioned by the US Coast Guard from 1961-1990, and is now operating again as an active aid to navigation. After it was shut down in 1961, the property was purchased by Dr. Pick (via sealed bid) who lovingly restored it over the next seventeen years. Eventually, he sold the property to the partners who still own it today.

When it became a bed and breakfast, apparently the resident ghost felt it necessary to help innkeeper Linda Gamble with things, but after she was woken up in the middle of the night by slamming cupboard doors in her kitchen, she angrily told him to stop! Reportedly, today the ghostly activity has settled, and she believes there to be five resident ghosts, though we are not sure just who all of them are. There was a soldier stationed there in 1952 who committed murder at the nearby Lumberjack Tavern, but why would he have stayed to haunt the Big Bay Point Light?

con't....


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Sabaton - The Lion From The North [Battle of Lützen - 1632]

Gripen

~The 30 years war~

On a field outside the small German town of Lützen, a King became lost in a mixture of fog and black gunpowder smoke. He was a product of his time, he was a warrior and he held a significant amount of personal courage. It was not the first time he had charged the enemy with weapons in his hands, it was the early 1600's and his name was Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden.

He got lost in the deafening mess that was created when the Swedish and Imperial armies crashed together like rhinos. He was not completely alone though. With him rode the chamberlain Creilsheim, the servants Truchsess and von Schulenberg, the 18-year-old boy named Leubelfing and the Kings lifeguards Anders Jönsson and Erland Lindelöf.

Suddenly, they get surrounded by heavily armoured German cuirassiers with pistols. A bullet hits the King above the left elbow and crushes the bone. Streiff, his horse, gets scared and difficult to control. Gustavus grasps the reins with his right hand and tries to get control over Streiff but then loses his sword. A shot goes off and hits the King in the back under the right scapula. After a previous gunshot wound at the Battle of Dirschau the King can no longer wear armor. He therefore wear a sort of leather jacket made of elk skin instead, but it cannot stop the bullet. It punctures his right lung. The King is now badly wounded and collapses in his saddle.

Many of the King's entourage have either fled or been killed. The lifeguard Anders Jönsson tries to support the wounded King and protect him from the stabbing cuirassiers. He fights desperately and valiantly against greater odds, but is ultimately cut down. Erland Lindelöf takes a shot in the neck and falls off his horse, and with this, the King immediately falls to the ground and remains lying. Streiff finds his way back to the army with empty and bloody saddle. The young servant Leubelfing is now the only one left, and he is trying to help Gustavus up on his own horse to save him, but it is difficult and he is heavy. The King has probably lost consciousness by now.

Leubelfing is cut down, seriously wounded, but he survives to later be able to tell what happened. Imperial riders, who certainly do not understand who it is they have found, shoot the King through the head at close range. Gustavus had been worth more alive than dead to them. But this is how King Gustavus Adolphus face his death on the battlefield, and the time is shortly before 13:00 on the day. It is a merciless and brutal affair.

When the King's body later was taken care of, wearing only a bloody white shirt, the pharmacist who embalmed Gustavus could count to five gunshot wounds, three stab wounds and a crushed bone in the left upper arm.

His leather jacket with the bullet hole can today be seen, along with his horse Streiff, in a museum at the Royal Armoury in Stockholm, Sweden. It is the best preserved and oldest stuffed horse in the world.
Song: Dominium maris baltici
Artist: Sabaton
Album: Carolus Rex (Exclusive Bonus Version)

Song: Lejonet Från Norden (Swedish Version)
Artist: Sabaton
Album: Carolus Rex
Writers: Joakim Broden, Par Sundstrom


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Thirty Years' War

Battle of Lützen (1632)


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Sabaton (band)

Sabaton is a Swedish power metal band from Falun. The band's main lyrical themes are based on war, historical battles, and acts of heroism—the name is a reference to a sabaton, knight's foot armor. The armor and battle theme is heard in the albums 'Primo Victoria', 'Attero Dominatus', 'The Art of War', 'Coat of Arms', 'Carolus Rex', 'Heroes', and 'The Last Stand' in which all of the songs contain these motifs, except final tracks which are tribute songs to influential heavy metal bands.

An upcoming album, 'The Great War', was announced early April 2019, with all songs based on World War I. Lyrical content drawn from World War I, World War II and other historical conflicts is prevalent and lyrics often recite stories of heroic deeds by men, women and armies.

In December 2015, five songs by the band were added to the third external music pack for the strategy game Europa Universalis IV by Paradox.

On June 6, 2016, the 72nd anniversary of D-Day, they released a music pack for the Paradox game Hearts of Iron IV with songs based on World War II, the theme of the game. They released a second on January 26, 2017.


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Sabaton.net


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'Controversial Newport Tower – Built By The Vikings, Knights Templar, Freemasons Or Someone Else?'

Ellen Lloyd - AncientPages.com - March 19, 2017

There is an intriguing stone structure in Newport, Rhode Island that has been a subject of great controversy and debate.

Standing in the heart of the city there is a 28-foot tower that is just as impressive as mysterious.

No-one knows who built the tower or when it was constructed. Several theories have been put forward. Some have suggested the tower was built by the Vikings. Others maintain it’s a legacy of the Knights Templar.

The tower has also been said to be the work of Freemasons. Native Americans, Chinese explorers and Celts have also been credited with the construction of the tower.Despite all guesses and speculations, many still think the tower’s existence is a real scientific enigma.

According to the mainstream theory, the Newport tower was built in the mid-17th century. It was originally a windmill. In 1948, the Society for American Archaeology investigated the tower and scientists concluded that all artifacts discovered at the site were from the 17th century.

con't....


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Newport Tower (Rhode Island)

The simple truth is that it is not "officially" known who constructed the tower, or when. This may directly tie-in to Part 3 of this posting series regarding the "Venusian cult"... and compare that to the latter part of the above article. Scott and Janet Wolter, and Alan Butler are good sources to delve into this. Actually, Scott and Janet are not in full agreement.

'America Nation of the Goddess: The Venus Families and the Founding of the United States'

What I think is that this loosely-knit "Illuminati milieu" have so many "ancient fetishes" that they can barely see straight! I think this Venusian connection is just another one of them; another spoke in the wheel.







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'Wotanism in Today’s World'

By Ron McVan - RenegadeTribune.com - June 13, 2016

Life is an ongoing battle of internal and external force. External force we all experience on a daily basis and it makes up the realities of our physical world. If we do nothing, external force will continue on its endless, timeless cycle regardless, as Nature and Universal Laws dictate.

Internal force is the essence which motivates and manifests our being, forms our character, stimulates thought and shapes the world around us. It could be said that external force is the vehicle and internal force is the driver. Internal force is the thought and it is the thought which creates the will, makes the man, and directs the quest in each race of man.

It is only when man tries to rebel against Nature that he comes into conflict with the iron logic of Nature’s Law and the principles to which he himself owes his existence as a distinct species. A race is a phenomenon of Nature, and should it become extinct, it can never be remade. In all things only the strong survive. It is the harsh and certain reality of life. When it comes to survival as a group or individual, only the strong survive, and Might Is Always Right!

con't....


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Del Toro Lake, Chile

Del Toro Lake (Spanish: Lago del Toro) is a lake located in the Magallanes Region, southern Chile. Also known as Lago del Toro or Lago Toro, its etymology comes from the lake's ability to generate 4 m swells due to a long (~30 km) fetch and high winds aligned with the long axis of the lake. Locals say that the lake and the nearby mountain Sierra del Toro is named thus because the lake 'is angry a lot'.[citation needed] Services on the lake include camping and fishing at Bahia el Bote.


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The lake was featured this week on Google 10 Spotlight. Bing has the best quick images of the beautiful lake. Chile, of course being in the cone of South America, has a climate similar to the northern parts of North America or northern Europe or northern Asia. It's interesting that each moderate climate region has it's mountain crown. North America has the Rockies, Europe has the Alps, Asia has the Himalayas, and South America has the Andes.






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Hymn of the Cathars "Lo boièr" (Le bouvier - The cattle herder)

Hans-André Stamm

The text of this Cathar hymn contains an encoded message, Joana being the medieval cathar church, which has been weakened and finally eliminated in Southern France (Occitanie) through the horrible Albigensian crusade. The spiritual essence of the cathars is still vibrating in caves and waters.

Texte occitan:
1. Can lou bouyè ben de laoura, Planto soun agulhado, A.E.I.O.U. Planto soun agulhado.
2. Troubo sa femno al pè del foc, Touto déscounsoulado.
3. "Se 'n es malaouto digas oc, Te faren un poutadzé.
4. Amb uno rabo un caoulét, Uno laouzéto magro."
5. "Quan séraï morto rébound mé, Al pus pirou de la cabo.
6. Méttras mous pès à la parét, Lou cap jous la canèlo.
7. E lous roumious que passaran, Prendran d'aïgo ségnado."
8. E diran: "Cal es mort aïci, Es la paouro Joana.
9. Que 'n es anado al paradis, Al cèl ambé sas cabros."

Engl. translation: When the herdsman comes back from work, plants his fork, finds his wife at the foot of fire, all discomfited. "If you're ill say yes! We will make a soup with kohlrabi, a cabbage, a lark thin." "When I die, bury me deep in the cellar. Put my feet against the wall, the head in the tap. And the pilgrims will take the holy water and say, 'Who died here? It is the poor Joana, who went to paradise, to heaven with his goats.'"


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From 'The Old Farmer's Almanac' - Moon Calendar 2019:

Lunar Funn

The lunar crater Tycho is mentioned in many stories and movies. For example, in Jules Verne's 1870 book 'Around the Moon', he refers to "the most splendid mountain of the lunar disc, the dazzling Tycho," as the "brilliant point of the Southern Hemisphere." The crater also served as teh site for "Tycho City" in the movie 'Star Trek: First Contact'.


Moon Talk

One of the most prominent craters on the Moon is Tycho, named for astronomer Tycho Brahe. Located in the southern lunar highlands, this crater was probably created about 108 million years ago, making it relatively young, as craters go. Fifty-three miles wide, it is surrounded by a conspicuous dark ring with bright rays extending as far as 932 miles. Tycho is easily viewed during a full Moon.


Full Strawberry Moon

This full Moon was named for berries that ripen at this time.


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The next full moon will occur on June 17th, 2019 at 4:31 AM ET and will be a Full Strawberry Moon.

This would tend to mean that on PST, the moon would be most full on Sunday evening; while on EST it would be sort've a tweener... equally as bright on the evenings of Sunday the 16th and Monday the 17th.


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NASA's Parker Solar Probe Mission Launches to Touch the Sun

NASA

NASA’s Parker Solar Probe mission launched Aug. 11 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The mission will be the first to fly directly through the Sun’s corona – the hazardous region of intense heat and solar radiation in the Sun’s atmosphere that is visible during an eclipse. It will gather data that could help answer questions about solar physics that have puzzled scientists for decades. Gathering information about fundamental processes near the Sun can help improve our understanding of how our solar system’s star changes the space environment, where space weather can affect astronauts, interfere with satellite orbits, or damage spacecraft electronics.

This video is available for download from NASA's Image and Video Library


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Parker Solar Probe (Wikipedia)

Parker Solar Probe website

Parker Solar Probe - NASA

'NASA's Parker Solar Probe May Solve 500-Year-Old Sun Mystery'


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The beautiful Katherine McPhee







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How to Remain Silent - Lehto's Law Ep. 5.91

Steve Lehto

There are two ways to remain silent - one is to invoke your right to remain silent. The other is to remain silent. Sounds tricky but it makes sense.

http://www.lehtoslaw.com


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Volbeat - Leviathan

3,385,795 views

Volbeat

Published on May 15, 2019

Check out the New Video “Leviathan” - the New Song from the upcoming album “Rewind, Rebound, Replay” out 02nd August 2019.

Pre-order the physical album as Double Vinyl, Ltd. Double Vinyl Color Edition, CD, 2CD, Ltd. Deluxe Box Edition and the digital album for instant downloads of “Leviathan” & “Parasite” now at https://www.volbeat.dk

Directed and produced by Adam Rothlein, Ghost Atomic Pictures


Lyrics:

Leviathan where are you now
My secret friend from the underground
Bring your waves and the thunder
Make me believe forever more
Outside my window I can see
The ocean where you used to be
Horns that sprout out from your head
A glowing light near the surface

Leviathan open your eyes
I cannot save the world’s demise
All alone with no armor
Your burning eyes shine from under

You said that you and I
Could make ‘em all terrified
And clean up the whole world

Chorus:

Leviathan open your eyes
Leviathan open your eyes, oh oh oh oh
Leviathan open your eyes
Leviathan open your eyes, oh oh oh oh

Remember once upon a time
Nobody loved you more than I
Our secret place is in danger
Wake king of the creatures
Outside my window I can see
The ocean where you used to be
Horns that sprout out from your head
A glowing light near the surface

Chorus:

Under the blackened sky when a fire storm lit up the ocean overnight
So we meet again, but this time we step out of our dreams with open eyes
Now that it’s said and done, can we make this world a better place for everyone?
For everyone


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'The Rings of Uranus'

Uranus has rings like other gas planets. It has 13 faint rings with Epsilon ring as the brightest.

WorldAtlas.com

Uranus is the fourth largest planet in mass and third largest in radius in the solar system. It is the seventh planet from the sun. Uranus and Neptune have similar composition. The scientists classify Neptune and Uranus as ice giants to differentiate them from gas giants Saturn and Jupiter. Uranus is composed of more ice such as water, methane, ammonia with little helium and hydrogen gases. It is also the planet with the coldest atmosphere having a temperature of -224 degrees Celsius. In addition, Uranus rings system has a unique configuration because its axis is tilted sideways.

con't....


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'The Top 20 Scariest TV Anthology Series'

ReelRunDown.com - October 17, 2016

20.) The Hitchhiker (1983 - 1991)
19.) Monsters (1988 - 1991)
18.) Are You Afraid of the Dark? (1991 - 2000)
17.) 'Way Out (1961)
16.) One Step Beyond (1959 - 1961)
15.) American Horror Story (2011 -)
14.) Masters of Horror (2005 - 2007)
13.) Tales of Tomorrow (1951 - 1953)
12.) Amazing Stories (1985 - 1987)
11.) Night Gallery (1970 - 1973)
10.) The Veil (1958)
9.) The Twilight Zone (1985-1989)
8.) Beyond Belief: Fact or Fiction (1997 - 2002)
7.) Tales from the Crypt (1989 - 1996)
6.) Hammer House of Horror (1980)
5.) Alfred Hitchcock Presents / The Alfred Hitchcock Hour (1955 - 1965)
4.) Tales from the Darkside (1984 - 1988)
3.) Thriller (1960 - 1962)
2.) The Twilight Zone (1959 - 1964)
1.) The Outer Limits (1963 - 1965)

con't....


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There are so many hidden gems from these series on YouTube. Outside of the well-known first two on the list, 'Tales from the Darkside', 'The Twilight Zone' (in the 80s), 'Night Gallery', and 'Masters of Horror'... really come to mind for me. Some of these episodes are really eerily memorable. I put two such examples below....






Masters of Horror S02E09 - Right to Die

Krissy Halliday







Little Boy Lost 1985 - Twilight Zone

AnnointingWordpress



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'Carl Jung on Demons'

by Louis Charles - AngelsGhosts.com

Many do not realize it, but Carl Gustav Jung, the father of analytical psychology, believed in demons.

But what Jung determined to be the demonic definitely blows holes in superstitious and most religious beliefs about the same.

"Unfortunately, it is my fate that other people, especially those who are themselves possessed by demons, think me mad because I believe in these powers. But that is their affair; I know they exist. There are demons all right, as sure as there is a Buchenwald (WWII German concentration camp)." - Carl Jung


Ancient Beliefs in Demons

The earliest beliefs in gods and demons originated from the idea that forces outside of us were in control of the cosmos and, therefore, our good and bad experiences. They believed something external, something not part of them, was influencing humanity: something evil.

Similar thinking still exists today, of course. Certain religious teachings have created and enforced monsterous ideas about demons. We do not realize that our beliefs in demonic influences are really just self-created mental projections placed upon our outside world.

con't....


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John Belushi: "The Noble Rot"

Yolonda Dobbins


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'Noble Rot' was a 1982 screenplay written by John Belushi and Don Novello--just prior to Belushi's death--in which the film companies were not interested in producing despite his best efforts to pitch it. So it remains something of a phantom script.

At the start of the above video tribute, there is a very interesting, slower, ethereal-like cover version of 'Our Lips Are Sealed' by the Go-Go's.


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Noble Rot – John Belushi – screenplay

Subterranean Cinema blog - May 4, 2014

For the first time ever presented in a public forum, you can now read the infamous final screenplay of Don Novello and John Belushi, “Noble Rot.”

con't....


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Volbeat - Black Bart (HD With Lyrics)

John Roglan


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Black Bart (outlaw)

Charles Earl Boles (b. 1829; d. after February 28, 1888), also known as Black Bart, was an English-born outlaw noted for the poetic messages he left behind after two of his robberies. Often called Charley by his friends, he was also known as Charles Bolton, C.E. Bolton and Black Bart the Poet. Considered a gentleman bandit with a reputation for style and sophistication, he was one of the most notorious stagecoach robbers to operate in and around Northern California and southern Oregon during the 1870s and 1880s.

So here I've stood while wind and rain
Have set the trees a-sobbin,
And risked my life for that box,
That wasn't worth the robbin.

-- Masked "Black Bart" copycat 1888, poem left at the scene of a stage coach robbery


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One time I saw an old photograph from downtown San Francisco in the early 50s, and posted to a telephone pole in the background was a poster of a "Black Bart Trail" theater production apparently. This northern California (Mendocino County) trail was named after Black Bart.


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(Leonard Nimoy) In Search Of.. **Strange Visitors** (aka Oracle Chamber) (Season 1 Episode 2)

ArcaneInfo111

Strange Visitors: Was Oracle Chamber, which lies beneath New Hampshire's Mystery Hill, built by ancient Phoenicians who traveled to the continent thousands of years ago?


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Why death is just an illusion - thought provoking video

theJourneyofPurpose TJOP

Death is an illusion, life is a dream and we are the creator of our own imagination The present moment is the only moment available to us and is the doorway to all moments
- Thich Nhat Hanh

Speakers: Alan Watts Steve Jobs Jim Carrey Nick Vujicic


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There is Something in the Woods

721,627 views

Bedtime Stories

S03E03 - There is Something in the Woods - David Paulides, an ex police officer turned author, believes something strange is going on in and around North American National Parks. After cataloguing thousands of mystifying deaths and disappearances, we join him in asking whether there is something in the woods that is stalking and hunting human beings.

ABOUT THE CHANNEL
Turn off the lights, get into bed and plug in your earphones. It's time for a creepy bedtime story. For the Fortean at heart, we cover anything that is even remotely strange. From the paranormal to the supernatural, unsolved mysteries, strange deaths, conspiracy theories, cryptids and everything in between, all told in a unique and creepy way. Join us every week for a new scary story.

SUPPORT US ON PATREON
https://www.patreon.com/BedtimeStoriesChannel

TWITTER
https://twitter.com/BdtmStrs

FACEBOOK
https://www.facebook.com/creepybedtimestories

EMAIL
bedtime.stories@outlook.com

MUSIC
"Crypto", "Ice Demon" and "Undaunted" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

"Secret Societies 1", "If I Don't Return", "Oscuro" and "Music For Scary Stories" used by kind permission of CO.AG
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCcavSftXHgxLBWwLDm_bNvA


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World Ice Theory

Midnight Configuration - Topic

Provided to YouTube by CDBaby

World Ice Theory · Midnight Configuration

The Distortion Field

℗ 2005 T.E. Bamford

Released on: 2005-01-01

Auto-generated by YouTube



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Welteislehre

Welteislehre (WEL; "World Ice Theory" or "World Ice Doctrine"), also known as Glazial-Kosmogonie (Glacial Cosmogony), is a discredited cosmological concept proposed by Hanns Hörbiger, an Austrian engineer and inventor.

Hörbiger did not arrive at his ideas through research, but said that he had received it in a "vision" in 1894. According to his ideas, ice was the basic substance of all cosmic processes, and ice moons, ice planets, and the "global ether" (also made of ice) had determined the entire development of the universe.



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Hanns Hörbiger

Hanns Hörbiger (29 November 1860, in Atzgersdorf – 11 October 1931, in Mauer) was an Austrian engineer from Vienna with roots in Tyrol. He took part in the construction of the Budapest subway and in 1894 invented a new type of valve essential for compressors still in widespread use today.

He is also remembered today for his pseudoscientific Welteislehre ("World Ice doctrine").


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Wednesday, June 5, 2019

Lombard nationalism: Part III


Definition of Lombardy

During the ages the concept of Lombardy changed quite frequently. In Early Middle Ages the word Longobardia indicated all the Lombard Kingdom. Since the 12th century the archaic term was gradually replaced by Lombardia (as a linguistic evolution, first appeared in the Pauli Continuatio) and in the geographic view it indicated first the area of the Langobardia Maior and then only the Po Valley, where was the centers of the Lombard power. Meanwhile, Lombardia took on a political meaning, with the creation of the Lombard League and the fight with the emperors for the municipal liberties. The definition remained such until the 19th century, when the new Italian state created today's region in the territory of the so-called Austrian Lombardy, with the addition of Lomellina and Oltrepò Pavese.


Linguistically, the Lombard-speaking area is bigger than the administrative region, and also includes the provinces of Novara, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola plus a part of the Alessandria one in Piedmont, Canton Ticino and the southern valleys of Grigioni in Switzerland, and the western valleys of Trentino. It partially corresponds to the territory of the first Visconti domain in the 13th century.

Some independence parties use alternative expression, such as Historical Lombardy, in opposition to the today's administrative region. According with pro Lombardy Independence and Eurominority, it corresponds with the joined Lombard-speaking and Emilian-speaking areas.


Symbolism

The Lombard movements today have not a unique symbol recognized by all.

The statue of Legnano Warrior, erroneously identified as Alberto da Giussano, was first used in the end of 50s by the journal La Regione Lombarda, official organ of the Movimento Autonomista Regionale Lombardo. Later was adopted by the Lombard League and finally became the symbol of the Northern League; today is recognized only as a symbol of that political party.

The St. George Cross is used by most independence and autonomy parties, despite some of them also use the flag of the Duchy of Milan, the Camunian rose or a flag inspired by federalist movements of 1848, with St. George Cross superimposed by green. There is also the idea of using a flag with both the red cross and the Biscione of the House of Visconti.


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Lombard flag reflecting west Lombard heritage, with the Visconti family or Milanese arms....







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Lombard flag reflecting east Lombard heritage, with the Camunian rose motif....




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Tuesday, June 4, 2019

Lombard Nationalism: Part II




History

Like in the rest of Europe, during the Romantic Era there was an awaken of the national sentiment in Lombardy. The napoleonic creation of the Cispadane Republic, which was later replaced by the Cisalpine one, opened the doors to the political debate. Carlo Botta, a piedmontese politician, wrote a book entitled Proposition to the Lombards about a way of free government, where he claimed the need of a constitution for the Lombard Nation, independent from the French one inspired by the Revolution. In the same years, Giuseppe Faroni proposed a draft constitution entitled Constitutional pole for the Lombard Republic.

The first independence movements appeared in the first half of the 19th century. Carlo Porta, one of the most important lombard intellectual, shows his adhesion to this idea in some writings. They are often associated to the Italians federalist movements, but they consider Lombardy as a nation instead a mere administrative division of the future state:


Che vegga Italia e la nazion lombarda strette ad un patto (That I'll see Italy and the Lombard nation close to a deal)
-- Pater Noster (dei Milanesi), a patriotic song of 1848

'Allegory of Lombardy' -- Giovanni Baratta
During the Five Days of Milan in 1848, at first insurgents only want a greater autonomy for Lombardy in the Austrian Empire, with the possibility to administrate itself. A large part of the leaders of the insurrection, such as Carlo Cattaneo, opposed to the Piedmont intervention.

After the annexation to the Kingdom of Sardinia (and the creation of the Italian state), it seems that some republicans and federalists movements want the creation of a State of Milan, because of the cultural, economical and social differences between Lombardy and the rest of Italy.


During the riots of Milan in 1898 and the other strikes in the following years (especially in 1913), when the Kingdom had to move 30,000 soldiers), some rumors of separatism came to the Italian government.

In the 1950s some small movements for autonomy appeared, such as the Movimento Autonomista Bergamasco, founded in 1947 by Guido Calderoli, that participated to the local elections in 1956, and later involved other Lombard provinces, changing first in Movimento Autonomista Regionale Lombardo (asking the creation of the Lombard Region, as required by the Italian constitution) and at last in Movimento Autonomie Regionali Padane (participating at political elections in 1958 and 1967), before disappear in 1970. Another movement is the Unione autonomisti padani, created by Ugo Gavazzeni with the union of various autonomist movements in northern Italy, that participated at political elections in 1967.From the legacy of this experiences in the 1980s was founded the Lombard League (since 1989 flowed in the Northern League). During the years, its target changes between the separatism and the ask of a greater autonomy in the Italian state. In 2018, the independence was officially abandoned by the federal secretary Matteo Salvini, after five years of ambiguity.

In the first decades of the 21st century, some cultural initiative and political parties appeared (among which Pro Lombardia Indipendenza is the best structured one).

In 2017 an advisory referendum (done simultaneously with the Venetian one) about the concession of a greater autonomy to the Lombard Region obtains the 95.3% of Yes, with the 38.3% of affluence. So the president of Lombardy, Roberto Maroni, opened the negotiations with Rome.

After the contemporary elections for the central and regional government in 2018, the new lombard president Attilio Fontana designates Stefano Bruno Galli as autonomy assessor, waiting for the formation of the new Italian government.


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